Definition and Classification/Staging System for Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)

In 2004, the ADQI group and representatives from three nephrology societies established the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN). Its intentions are to facilitate international, interdisciplinary and intersocietal collaborations and to ensure progress in the field of AKI, including the development of uniform standards for the definition and classification of AKI. As part of this process, the RIFLE nomenclature and classification was modified to a staging/classification system differentiating between AKI stage I, II and III. In addition, a 48-hour time window for the diagnosis of AKI was introduced to ensure that the process was acute.
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Definition and Characteristics of Bartter's Syndrome

Bartter’s syndrome is a rare disease that most often presents in the neonatal period or early childhood with polyuria, polydipsia, salt craving, and growth retardation. Blood pressure is normal or low. Metabolic abnormalities include hypokalemia, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, decreased urinary concentrating and diluting ability, hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis, mild hypomagnesemia, and increased urinary prostaglandin excretion.
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Indications of Dialysis in Renal Failure

Indications of dialysis in acute renal failure (ARF)

  • Severe fluid overload
  • Refractory hypertension
  • Uncontrollable hyperkalemia
  • Nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, gastritis with hemorrhage
  • Lethargy, malaise, somnolence, stupor, coma, delirium, asterixis, tremor, seizures,
  • Pericarditis (risk of hemorrhage or tamponade)
  • bleeding diathesis (epistaxis, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and etc.)
  • Severe metabolic acidosis
  • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) > 70 – 100 mg/dl Continue reading

Risk Factors for Contrast-Induced Nephropathy (CIN)

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is defined as the impairment of renal function and is measured as either a 25% increase in serum creatinine (SCr) from baseline or 0.5 mg/dL (44 umol/L) increase in absolute value, within 48-72 hours of intravenous contrast administration. Continue reading

Clinical Features of Nephrotic and Nephritic Syndrome

Clinical Features of Nephrotic Syndrome

The nephrotic syndrome is a clinical complex characterized by:

  • proteinuria of >3.5 g per 1.73 m2 per 24 h (in practice, >3.0 to 3.5 g per 24 h),
  • hypoalbuminemia,
  • edema,
  • hyperlipidemia,
  • lipiduria, and
  • hypercoagulability.

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Definition and Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

NKF Definition of Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Kidney damage for three or more months, as defined by structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney, with or without decreased GFR, manifested by pathologic abnormalities or markers of kidney damage, including abnormalities in the composition of the blood or urine or abnormalities in imaging tests

  • GFR < 60 mL per minute per 1.73 m2 for three months or more, with or without kidney damage

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