Laboratory Findings in Various Platelet and Coagulation Disorders

A peripheral-blood smear is a vital investigation tool in most cases to confirm a low platelet count and the presence or absence of other diagnostic features, such as red-cell fragmentation, platelet morphologic abnormalities, or evidence of dysplasia or hematinic deficiency.
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Definitions of Laboratory and Clinical Tumor Lysis Syndrome

The tumor lysis syndrome is the most common disease-related emergency encountered by physicians caring for children or adults with hematologic cancers. This syndrome occurs when tumor cells release their contents into the bloodstream, either spontaneously or in response to therapy, leading to the characteristic findings of hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia. These electrolyte and metabolic disturbances can progress to clinical toxic effects, including renal insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death due to multiorgan failure.
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Clinical Laboratory Testing in the Rheumatic Diseases

The diagnosis of rheumatologic diseases is based on clinical information, blood and imaging tests, and in some cases on histology. Blood tests are useful in confirming clinically suspected diagnosis and monitoring the disease activity. The tests should be used as adjuncts to a comprehensive history and physical examination.
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