MDS Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson's Disease (PD)

The prerequisite to apply the Movement Disorder Society (MDS-PD) criteria is the diagnosis of parkinsonism, which is based on three cardinal motor manifestations. Parkinsonism is defined as bradykinesia, in combination with either rest tremor, rigidity, or both. These features must be clearly demonstrable and not attributable to confounding factors. Continue reading

DSM-V Diagnostic Criteria for Insomnia

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine defines insomnia as the subjective perception of difficulty with sleep initiation, duration, consolidation, or quality that occurs despite adequate opportunity for sleep, and that results in some form of daytime impairment.
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Diagnostic Criteria for Delirium

Delirium is also known as acute confusional state, altered mental status, and toxic metabolic encephalopathy, among more than 30 descriptive terms. Delirium can be thought of as acute brain failure and is the final common pathway of multiple mechanisms, similar to acute heart failure. The official definition of delirium in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), requires a disturbance in attention and awareness that develops acutely and tends to fluctuate. The pathophysiological mechanisms of delirium remain poorly understood; leading models include neurotransmitter imbalance and neuroinflammation.
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Diagnostic Criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition of persistent mental and emotional stress occurring as a result of injury or severe psychological shock, typically involving disturbance of sleep and constant vivid recall of the experience, with dulled responses to others and to the outside world.
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Criteria for Grading Hepatic Encephalopathy

Grading of hepatic encephalopathy categorizes it in clinical stages of stepwise worsening. The description of each grade varies somewhat in the literature, but differences between adjacent grades are clear enough to be helpful in clinical practice, although neurologic descriptors are sparse. One study showed that for patients who become comatose, the Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score is more discriminating than the West Haven grading system because it includes brain-stem and respiration assessment, which are not further differentiated in the West Haven system.
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