Recently developed consensus functional definitions on the basis of specific changes in the serum creatinine concentration and urine volume now complement anatomical approaches to diagnosis. Continue reading →
Chronic HBV infection is a necroinflammatory disease of the liver caused by persistent infection with HBV, and can be categorized as hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive or negative. Inactive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers have HBV infection of the liver without significant, ongoing necroinflammatory disease. HBV infection is resolved when there is no further virologic, biochemical, or histologic evidence of active viral infection or disease. Continue reading →
Classic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is characterized by the occurrence of symmetrical weakness in both proximal and distal muscles that progressively increases for more than two months (setting this condition apart from the Guillain–Barré syndrome, which is self-limited). The condition is associated with impaired sensation, absent or diminished tendon reflexes, an elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein level, demyelinating nerve-conduction studies, and signs of demyelination in nerve-biopsy specimens. The course can be relapsing or chronic and progressive, the former being much more common in young adults. Continue reading →
These criteria are applied by testing the median, ulnar (stimulated below the elbow), peroneal (stimulated below the fibular head), and tibial nerves on one side of the body. During testing, limb temperature should be no less than 33°C at the palm and no less than 30°C at the external malleolus. Continue reading →
Kidney damage for three or more months, as defined by structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney, with or without decreased GFR, manifested by pathologic abnormalities or markers of kidney damage, including abnormalities in the composition of the blood or urine or abnormalities in imaging tests
GFR < 60 mL per minute per 1.73 m2 for three months or more, with or without kidney damage
The European Respiratory Society (ERS) diagnostic criteria for COPD include the following symptoms: coughing, sputum production and/or dyspnoea, as well as a history of exposure to risk factors for COPD. The diagnosis is confirmed by a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 in spirometry, as sign of the airflow limitation that is not fully reversible.
The criteria for chronic stable refractory angina were defined by Mannheimer and colleagues in 2002 as “a chronic condition characterized by the presence of angina caused by coronary insufficiency in the presence of coronary artery disease which cannot be controlled by a combination of medical therapy, angioplasty and coronary bypass surgery. The presence of reversible myocardial ischemia should be clinically established to be the cause of the symptoms. Chronic is defined as a duration of more than 3 months. Continue reading →