Spetzler–Martin Grading Scale for Arteriovenous Malformations of the Brain

Arteriovenous malformations of the brain are congenital anomalies of the blood vessels that are derived from maldevelopment of the capillary network, allowing direct connections between cerebral arteries and veins. The most common presenting symptoms are cerebral hemorrhage and seizures. Focal neurologic deficits and headaches may develop independent of cerebral bleeding. As a result of the widespread use of brain imaging, arteriovenous malformations are increasingly being discovered incidentally.
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Advantages of Surgery and Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases

La radiocirugía estereotáctica es una forma apropiada de tratamiento para los pacientes que tienen una a cuatro metástasis cerebrales, no más de 4 cm de diámetro, de cáncer metastásico. Parece ser eficaz para todos los tipos de tumores primarios, incluso aquellos que se han considerado resistentes a la terapia de radiación convencional.
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Criteria for Brain Death in Adults and Children

Clinical Criteria for Brain Death in Adults and Children

  • Coma
  • Absence of motor responses
  • Absence of pupillary responses to light and pupils at midposition with respect to dilatation (4–6 mm)
  • Absence of corneal reflexes
  • Absence of caloric responses
  • Absence of gag reflex
  • Absence of coughing in response to tracheal suctioning
  • Absence of sucking and rooting reflexes
  • Absence of respiratory drive at a PaCO2 that is 60 mm Hg or 20 mm Hg above normal base-line values*
  • Interval between two evaluations, according to patient’s age Continue reading