Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD) is a life-threatening complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) that belongs to a group of diseases increasingly identified as transplant-related, systemic endothelial diseases. In most cases, SOS/VOD resolves within weeks; however, severe SOS/VOD results in multi-organ dysfunction/failure with a mortality rate >80%. Continue reading
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) characterized by stem cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation that is often but not always accompanied by JAK2, CALR or MPL mutation, abnormal cytokine expression, bone marrow fibrosis, anemia, splenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), constitutional symptoms, cachexia, leukemic progression and shortened survival. Continue reading
Essential Thrombocytosis (ET) is the only chronic myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) without a specific phenotype. Because isolated thrombocytosis can be the initial clinical manifestation of polycythemia vera (PV), primary myelofibrosis (PMF), or chronic myelogenous leukemia, ET is not only a diagnosis of exclusion, it should also not be considered a single disease entity. Continue reading
Aplastic anaemia is a rare and heterogeneous disorder. It is defined as pancytopenia with a hypocellular bone marrow in the absence of an abnormal infiltrate or marrow fibrosis. Continue reading
POEMS syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome due to an underlying plasma cell disorder (PCD). The acronym, which was coined by Bardwick in 1980, refers to several, but not all, of the features of the syndrome: polyradiculoneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal PCD, and skin changes. Continue reading
The International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) consensus updates the disease definition of multiple myeloma to include validated biomarkers in addition to existing requirements of attributable CRAB features (hypercalcaemia, renal failure, anaemia, and bone lesions). Continue reading
The porphyrias are disorders of heme synthesis, which has eight steps. Each type of porphyria involves a defect, either inherited or acquired, in a pathway enzyme. When the defect is physiologically significant, it results in overproduction of pathway precursors preceding the defective step which enter the circulation and are excreted into urine or bile. The diseases have been grouped as acute hepatic porphyrias and photocutaneous porphyrias. The acute porphyrias are due to hepatic overproduction of the porphyrin precursors, delta aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen, and the symptoms are caused by injury primarily to the nervous system. Cutaneous porphyria is due to overproduction of photosensitizing porphyrins by the liver or bone marrow, depending on the type of porphyria.
Platelet transfusion may be indicated to prevent hemorrhage in patients with thrombocytopenia or platelet function defects.
The World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms updated in 2008 represents a worldwide consensus on the diagnosis of these tumors and is based on the recognition of distinct diseases, using a multidisciplinary approach.
The definition of plasma cell myeloma (PCM) has rested on identifying clinical and laboratory features that predict when a sufficient burden of plasma cells has accumulated that the patient will benefit from treatment.