CT Colonography Reporting and Data System (C-RADS)

In 2005, the CT Colonography Reporting and Data System (C-RADS) was established to provide a means of classifying findings of CT colonography (CTC) and of applying the advantages of structured reporting to the setting of colorectal cancer screening.
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Criteria for Grading Hepatic Encephalopathy

Grading of hepatic encephalopathy categorizes it in clinical stages of stepwise worsening. The description of each grade varies somewhat in the literature, but differences between adjacent grades are clear enough to be helpful in clinical practice, although neurologic descriptors are sparse. One study showed that for patients who become comatose, the Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score is more discriminating than the West Haven grading system because it includes brain-stem and respiration assessment, which are not further differentiated in the West Haven system.
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Diagnostic Criteria of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause that is characterized pathologically by an inflammatory and fibrotic process centered on the epithelium, leading to diffuse biliary stenosis and increased wall thickness throughout the intra- and extra-hepatic biliary trees.
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Rome III Criteria for Functional Dyspepsia (FD)

According to the Rome III criteria, functional dyspepsia is defined as the presence of one or more of the following: postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain or burning and no evidence of structural disease (including at upper endoscopy) to explain the symptoms.
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Indications and Contraindications for ERCP in Patients with Acute Biliary Pancreatitis

Recent guidelines published by the American College of Gastroenterology suggest that urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) (within 24 hours after admission) is indicated in patients with biliary pancreatitis who have concurrent acute cholangitis, but it is not needed in most patients who do not have evidence of ongoing biliary obstruction.
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Modified Marsh Classification of Histologic Findings in Celiac Disease (Oberhuber)

Celiac disease is a systemic immune-mediated disorder triggered by dietary gluten in genetically susceptible persons. Gluten is a protein complex found in wheat, rye, and barley. Celiac disease is characterized by a broad range of clinical presentations, a specific serum autoantibody response, and variable damage to the smallintestinal mucosa.
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Serologic Testing for the Diagnosis of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection

The antigens and antibodies associated with HBV infection include HBsAg (Australia antigen) and antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs), hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) and antibody to HBcAg (anti-HBc), and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe). At least one serologic marker is present during the different phases of HBV infection.
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