a Capnocytophaga sp
Agents Chemother 2000 Nov;44(11):3186-8
In vitro susceptibilities of capnocytophaga isolates to beta-lactam
antibiotics and beta-lactamase inhibitors
Jolivet-Gougeon A, Buffet A, Dupuy C, Sixou JL, Bonnaure-Mallet M, David
S, Cormier M
Laboratoire de Microbiologie Pharmaceutique, UPRES-EA 1254, Universite de
Rennes I, 35000 Rennes, France.
The susceptibilities of 43 pharyngeal isolates of Capnocytophaga to
beta-lactam antibiotics, alone or in combination with beta-lactamase
inhibitors, were tested by an agar dilution method. The 34
beta-lactamase-positive strains were highly resistant to beta-lactams, but
the intrinsic activities of clavulanate, tazobactam, and sulbactam against
Capnocytophaga, even beta-lactamase producers, indicates that these
beta-lactamase inhibitors could be used for empirical treatment of
neutropenic patients with oral sources of infection.
Arch Pathol Lab Med 2000 Jun;124(6):859-63
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome secondary to Capnocytophaga canimorsus
septicemia and demonstration of bacteremia by peripheral blood smear.
Mirza I, Wolk J, Toth L, Rostenberg P, Kranwinkel R, Sieber SC
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Danbury Hospital, CT
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome caused by Capnocytophaga canimorsus
septicemia was fatal in a previously healthy 47-year-old woman. The
patient died suddenly in less than 12 hours after presentation, in spite
of supportive measures, including ventilation, antibiotic coverage,
pressor therapy, and multiple transfusions of blood products. The
diagnosis of infection due to an unusual organism was suspected earlier in
the course of management after review of the peripheral blood smear. The
importance of the findings in the blood smear and their correlation with
infection due to this organism are discussed.
Clin Infect Dis 2000 Mar;30(3):606-7
Isolation of Capnocytophaga granulosa from an abscess in an
Ebinger M, Nichterlein T, Schumacher UK, Manncke B, Schmidt D, Bohn I
Children's Hospital Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, 68135 Mannheim,
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1999 Sep;16(3):362-3
Do not snog the dog: infective endocarditis due to Capnocytophaga
Ngaage DL, Kotidis KN, Sandoe JA, Unnikrishnan Nair R
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Yorkshire Heart Centre, Leeds
General Infirmary, West Yorkshire, UK.
We present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis and paravalvular
abscess caused by the canine bacteria Capnocytophaga canimorsus in a
63-year-old man, who made a habit of snogging his pet dog. Capnocytophaga
canimorsus can cause culture-negative endocarditis, therefore a high level
of clinical awareness and the appropriate isolation techniques are
important for making the diagnosis. Antibiotic therapy and properly timed
excision of the infected focus are recommended.
Clin Infect Dis 1999 May;28(5):1172-4
Bacteremia due to Capnocytophaga species in patients with neutropenia:
high frequency of beta-lactamase-producing strains.
Maury S, Leblanc T, Rousselot P, Legrand P, Arlet G, Cordonnier C
Services d'Hematologie Clinique et de Microbiologie, Hopital Henri Mondor,
N Engl J Med 1999 May 13;340(19):1513-4 [Texto
Capnocytophaga canimorsus sepsis.
N Engl J Med 1998 Dec 17;339(25):1827 [Texto
Images in clinical medicine. Capnocytophaga canimorsus sepsis.
Alberio L, Lammle B
University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland.
Clin Infect Dis 1998 Aug;27(2):406-7
Capnocytophaga sepsis in a patient with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia.
Guzman E, Coun D, Wagner I
Department of Medicine, Saint Vincents Hospital and Medical Center, New
York, New York, USA.
Med Clin (Barc) 1998 Jun 20;111(2):76
[Fulminant sepsis by Capnocytophaga canimorsus after a dog bite].
Sistiaga F, Gutierrez-Stampa MA, Mateu J, Bujanda L
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 1997 Jun-Jul;15(6):338-9
[Bacteremia caused by Capnocytophaga ochracea: apropos of 2 cases].
Viudes A, Orero A, Larrea L, Perez Belles C, Perez de Leon A, Perez
Clin Infect Dis 1997 Jul;25(1):152-3
Liver abscess caused by Capnocytophaga species.
Weber G, Abu-Shakra M, Hertzanu Y, Borer A, Sukenik S
Department of Medicine D, Soroka Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University,
Clin Infect Dis 1997 Feb;24(2):123, 267
Diagnosis: Capnocytophaga canimorsus septicemia.
Mossad SB, Lichtin AE, Hall GS, Gordon SM
Department of Infectious Diseases, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio
Eur J Epidemiol 1996 Oct;12(5):521-33
Capnocytophaga canimorsus infections in human: review of the literature
and cases report.
Lion C, Escande F, Burdin JC
Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nancy,
France. Capnocytophaga canimorsus, formerly designated Dysgonic fermenter
2 (DF-2) was first described in 1976; it is a commensal bacterium of dogs
and cats saliva, which can be transmitted to man by bite (54% of cases),
scratch (8.5%), or mere exposure to animals (27%). We present a review of
the clinical and microbiological characteristics of the Capnocytophaga
canimorsus infections and 12 cases of infection in France. Over 100 cases
of human infections have been reported, mainly septicemia in patients with
diminished defences, due to splenectomy (33%), alcohol abuse (24%),
immunosuppression (5%). However 40% of septicemia occur in patients with
no predisposing conditions. Other infections are less frequent:
meningitis, endocarditis, arthritis, pleural and localized eye infections.
These infections range from mild to fulminating disease, with shock,
respiratory distress, disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Dermatological lesions (macular or maculopapular rash, purpura) or
gangrene are common. This fastidious Gram-negative bacterium grows slowly
on chocolate agar or on heart infusion agar with 5% rabbit blood incubated
in 5% CO2. In spite of a great susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics,
the mortality is of 30%. Because of the severity of these infections,
taking into account this organism in the management of bites is necessary,
especially in patients with predisposing factors.
Review of reported cases
Clin Infect Dis 1996 Jul;23(1):71-5
Capnocytophaga canimorsus septicemia in Denmark, 1982-1995: review of 39
Pers C, Gahrn-Hansen B, Frederiksen W
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Statens Seruminstitut Copenhagen,
Thirty-nine Danish cases of Capnocytophaga canimorsus septicemia were
reviewed to determine the clinical course of this infection. The cases of
septicemia were related to recent dog bites or other close contact with
dogs. The period from the bite to the onset of symptoms ranged from 1 to 8
days. The mean age of the patients was 59.1 years (range, 28-83 years).
Underlying conditions included previous splenectomy and alcoholism.
Thirteen patients had previously been in good health. Common initial
symptoms were fever, malaise, myalgia, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain,
dyspnea, confusion, headache and skin manifestations. Disseminated
intravascular coagulation developed in 14 patients, meningitis in 5, and
endocarditis in 1. Twelve of the patients died. All patients except two
were treated with penicillin or ampicillin. Five patients had received
antibiotics prior to admission. Attention should be drawn to C. canimorsus
septicemia in cases of febrile illness following dog bites or contact with
dogs, as well as those involving previously healthy persons. The incidence
of this condition in Denmark is estimated to be 0.5 case per 1 million
people per year.
Review of reported cases
Clin Infect Dis 1996 Jun;22(6):1099-101
Vertebral osteomyelitis due to Capnocytophaga species in immunocompetent
patients: report of two cases and review.
Duong M, Besancenot JF, Neuwirth C, Buisson M, Chavanet P, Portier H
Department of Infectious Diseases, Hopital du Bocage, Dijon, France.
Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Capnocytophaga species was diagnosed in
two adults. One of these infections was due to C. ochracea and the other
was due to C. sputigena. Both patients were immunocompetent and presented
with concomitant periodontitis and gingivitis. The infections were
eradicated by means of prolonged antibiotic therapy, combined in one case
with surgical treatment. Capnocytophaga species should be considered a
potential cause of vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent patients,
especially in the presence of oral pathology.
Review of reported cases
An Med Interna 1996 Apr;13(4):185-7
[Bacteremia caused by Capnocytophaga sp: presentation of 2 cases, one with
endocarditis. Review of the literature].
Roig PP, Lopez MM, Martin C, Zorraquino A, Sanchez B, Navarro V, Merino J
Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital Universitario de San Juan,
Capnocytophaga sp. is a gram-negative bacilli, scarcely documented as the
cause of bacteremias. Two cases of bacteremia caused by Capnocytophaga sp,
one of them with endocarditis, are reported here. A review of previous
published cases is also presented. One of the patients was
immunocompromised, because of chemotherapy, the other, suffered from a
rheumatic-cardiopathy which was complicated with endocarditis. Both
patients developed an alteration of the oral mucosa. Antibiotic therapy
proved to be effective with two patients.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1995 Jun;14(6):520-3
Capnocytophaga canimorsus septicemia: fifth report of a cat-associated
infection and five other cases.
Valtonen M, Lauhio A, Carlson P, Multanen J, Sivonen A, Vaara M,
Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland.
Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a fastidious, slow-growing, gram-negative,
rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the normal oral flora of dogs and
cats. Human septicemic infections are associated with a high mortality;
most cases occur in immunocompromised patients with a history of dog bite.
The fifth case of cat-associated septicemia caused by Capnocytophaga
canimorsus is described. The six case reports presented here point out the
characteristics reported previously: (a) cats are a source of human
infection; (b) alcohol abuse is an important risk factor for the
development of septicemic Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection; (c)
septicemic infection often manifests with disseminated intravascular
consumption coagulopathy or purpura; and (d) some cases of septicemia in
humans result from pets that lick skin ulcers.
Review of reported cases